Lectures Pre-conference School

Catalysis by zeolites

Dilson Cardoso
Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil

The function of a catalyst is to provide an alternative path, easier to occur a given chemical reaction. In zeolites, this role is played by the interaction of molecules of reactants with certain local of its surface, called catalytic sites, so that there is a reduction of the activation energy of the reaction. The most common sites found in the zeolites are of acidic, basic, redox as well of acid-bifunctional character. Read More >

Opportunities for micro- and meso-porous materials for the conversion of CO2

Gabriele CENTI* and Siglinda PERATHONER
Dept. DIECII, Section Industrial Chemistry, V.le F. Stagno D’Alcontre 31
University of Messina, ERIC aisbl and CASPE/INSTM, 98166 Messina, Italy

The scenario for chemistry and energy and their nexus is fast changing. It is thus necessary to understand the new directions for research and development to prepare a sustainable future. CO2 utilization is part of this challenge and also a great opportunity to explore new concepts and new opportunities for catalysis and industrial chemistry. CO2 conversion will be at the core of the future of low-carbon chemical and energy industry [1,2]. The new routes necessary to enable this scenario requires developing new catalysts. New opportunities are thus created also for micro- and meso-porous materials. Read More >

Zeolites crystal growth

Svetlana Mintova
Laboratoire Catalyse & Spectrochimie (LCS), CNRS, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, 6 boulevard Maréchal Juin 14050 Caen FRANCE

This paper will review the crystal growth mechanism of zeolites featuring the latest finding. In order to influence the synthesis processes and to obtain zeolites with desired properties, a great effort has been dedicated to the fundamental understanding of the zeolite crystal growth. The latest studies on zeolite crystallization in colloidal (clear) suspensions prepared by addition of organic and inorganic structural directing agents in comparison to traditional gel synthesis and seed-approach will be revealed. Further understanding on the imperative dependence of zeolite crystallization kinetics’ on the nature and mode of mixing of the initial reactants, leading to the formation of amorphous particles, intermediates, and final crystalline zeolites will be discussed. Read More >

Design of zeolitic catalysts for the production of fuels and/or chemicals from waste plastics

David Serrano
Director of the IMDEA Energy Institute, Full Professor of Rey Juan Carlos University

Catalytic cracking of plastic wastes is one of the most feasible options for the development of commercial processes allowing these residues to be upgraded by conversion into fuels and/or chemicals. Three main alternatives have been considered for carrying out the catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes. The first one consists of performing the catalytic cracking by contacting directly the catalyst with the plastic waste feed. This is a relatively simple treatment, although the bulky nature of the plastic macromolecules and its inherent huge viscosity causes the appearance of both mass and heat transfer constraints. Likewise, the presence of different impurities contained in the plastic wastes feed may provoke the catalyst deactivation.Read More >

Acidity and basicity of zeolites

Guido Busca
Dipartimento di Ingegneria civile, Chimica e Ambientale, Università di Genova, Genova (Italy)

Protonic zeolites, i.e. those zeolites where protons act as balancing cations in the cavities of the negatively charged [Si1-xAlxO2]x-, find industrial applications as acid catalysts in a large number of hydrocarbon conversion reactions because they are among the strongest protonic solid acids. The excellent activity of these materials is due to two main properties: the strong Brønsted acidity of bridging Si-(OH)-Al sites and shape selectivity effects due to the molecular sieving properties associated to the well defined crystal pore sizes, where the catalytic active sites are located. Read More >

Zeolites as catalysts in biorefinery

Jean Marcel R. Gallo
Chemistry Department, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)

Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable source of carbon for the productions of fuels and chemicals. Cellulose (a polymers of the C6 monosaccharide glucose) and hemicellulose (a polymers, mainly, of the C5 monosaccharide xylose) account for almost 75 % of the lignocellulosic biomass composition and, therefore, their chemical conversion plays a major role for the economic success of biomass exploitation and the development of the biorefineries. Read More >

Cu-Containing Zeolites for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Ammonia and for the Partial Oxidation of Methane

Raul F. Lobo
Center for Catalytic Science and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 USA

Over the last decade, it has been recognized by industry and academia that Cu-containing zeolites have exceptional properties for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Ammonia (Ammonia SCR), and for the activation of small hydrocarbons, especially methane. Much effort has been invested in developing practical catalysts for these reactions and understanding their operation at the molecular level. In this talk I will review the current state of our understanding of the mechanisms of reaction of Cu-chabazite and related catalysts for the ammonia SCR reaction. We will start with an overview of the SCR technology and the physical context where these zeolite catalysts need to operate. Read More >

Natural zeolites: pictorial & structural description, occurrence, sustainable properties, essential applications

Zelimir Gabelica
1st Class Full Professor at Université de Haute Alsace, Mulhouse, France. Member of the IZA Natural Zeolite Commission

For nearly 250 years since their discovery in 1756 up to the mid 1950’s, geologists and mineralogists continuously discovered quite large zeolite crystals in vugs and cavities of basalts and gabbro, or in other traprock formations where they grow when these volcanic rocks and ash layers start to react with alkaline groundwater. These macro-sized crystals have often been exhibited in museums for their aesthetics or as curiosities, and are still much prized by mineral collectors. Read More >

A Primer on Zeolite Characterization

Raul F. Lobo
Center for Catalytic Science and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 USA

This introductory lecture is aimed to graduate students at an early stage of their graduate program and to individuals that are beginning research in zeolites and microporous materials in general. One of the striking aspects of zeolite materials is the close relationship that exists between structure and composition, and physical properties. Molecular sieving is, for instance, a key characteristic highly dependent on zeolite structure; their hydrophobic/hydrophilic character is, on the other hand, very closely related to composition. Read More >